Sulphur Powder is used in rubber, Tyre & latex industries. Rubber is the main raw material used in manufacturing of tires and both natural & synthetic rubber is used. In rubber molecules the cross linking between the chains are very less. This leads to the softness in rubber. To make the rubber hard, it is treated with sulphur & this process is known as vulcanization. When sulphur react with the natural rubber then it increases the cross linking between the molecules in the rubber. It also forms many sulphide bonds. Due to formation of many new cross linking and many sulphide bonds the natural rubber becomes hard. This vulcanized rubber has better elasticity at low as well as at high temperature. It also neither becomes soft nor brittle.Sulphur is also used in latex industry in manufacturing of hand gloves & other latex materials.
Sulphur is one of the principal rubber vulcanizing agents. It is a critical additive. When chemically combined with rubber, sulphur develops basic performance properties in the vulcanized compound such as: tensile strength, elongation, modulus, and hardness. In soft or elastic rubber compounds, sulphur is an essential but minor additive. In semi-hard rubber and ebonite, sulphur becomes a major compounding material while retaining its role as a vulcanizing agent.
The most stable molecular form of sulphur at ambient conditions is a ring structure containing eight sulphur atoms. Depending on conditions these molecules orient into one of two crystalline structures. At room temperature the crystals are rhombic and above 95°C they rearrange to monoclinic. Less than 1.5 % of either crystalline structure of sulphur is soluble in any rubber at room temperature.
The second common molecular form of sulphur is polymeric sulphur, made up of unbranched chains of sulphur atoms. It is commonly referred to in the rubber industry as insoluble sulphur. When this material is created by rapid heating to above 160°C and quenching to room temperature, the sulphur is amorphous. If formed under other conditions, the polymer chains may develop regions of pseudo crystallinity.
Insoluble sulphur is an important form of sulphur used only in the rubber industry. It is not soluble in any type of rubber hydrocarbon. When it is mixed in rubber, it disperses but remains undissolved in the rubber. The use of insoluble sulphur prevents the development of a supersaturated solution of sulphur in rubber that occurs when rhombic sulphur is used. No sulphur bloom will develop on the surface of uncured rubber pieces when the rubber cools after mixing or processing; therefore, building tack is preserved. At curing temperatures, insoluble sulphur rapidly transforms to a soluble species, dissolves in the rubber, and enters into the vulcanization process.
Sulphur is present in tires in different concentrations, depending on the type and age of the tires. Typical sulphur content in tires is about 1.6 mass %. Tire pyrolysis yields three different products: liquid, gaseous, and solid residue composed mostly of carbon black (chars). Temperature and residence time are the two most important parameters affecting the yield and composition of the volatile fraction and they are therefore expected to affect the sulphur content in residues. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a laboratory pyrolysis reaction unit in the temperature range of 650°C to 750°C at different residence times: 88.6 s, 80.2 s, and 73.9 s. Liquid and solid products were analysed by elemental analysis and the distribution of total sulphur in tire pyrolysis products was calculated.
This element is utilized in the creation of sulfuric acid. These are used in different industries. The element is used in the creation of steel and rubber. It is also included in the production of inorganic chemicals, matches, fumigants and glass. It is also used in explosives, cement, animal feed and adhesives. Fertilizers are also used. Producers of slat blocks, soil amendments, petroleum and sugar refining also use them.
This form of the element has many applications. It is a vital component in dyes, fungicides and production of agrichemicals. It is also required in mineral extraction and waste water processing. Powdered sulfur is found in lotions and skin cream ingredients. Burned sulfur helps preserve fruits and bleach paper. The element is part of many creams, lotions and bar soaps. Many of the skin treatment ointment products in the market have this ingredient.
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